Tennis Elbow and Golfer’s Elbow: Causes, Symptoms and Prevention

Tennis Elbow and Golfer's Elbow: Causes, Symptoms and Prevention

Are you a tennis enthusiast or a passionate golfer? While these sports offer great fun and exercise, they also come with a risk of injuries, including tennis elbow and golfer’s elbow. In this article, we’ll delve into these common conditions, explore their causes and symptoms, provide effective treatment options, and offer valuable tips for prevention.

Understanding Tennis Elbow and Golfer’s Elbow

Understanding Tennis Elbow and Golfer's Elbow

Tennis elbow, also known as lateral epicondylitis, is a painful condition caused by the overuse of forearm muscles. Despite its name, it can affect not only tennis players but anyone who engages in repetitive gripping activities.

Golfer’s elbow, or medial epicondylitis, is similar to tennis elbow but affects the inner side of the elbow. It is caused by the overuse of muscles used for gripping, flexing the wrist, and rotating the forearm, making it common among golfers.

Causes and Risk Factors

The causes and risk factors of tennis elbow and golfer’s elbow are related to repetitive overuse of the forearm muscles and tendons. Here’s a more detailed explanation of the causes and factors that increase the risk of developing these conditions:

Tennis Elbow (Lateral Epicondylitis)


  • Repetitive Motion: The primary cause of tennis elbow is the repeated and forceful use of the forearm extensor muscles, especially the extensor carpi radialis brevis tendon. Activities that involve gripping, lifting, or twisting motions, such as playing tennis, using a screwdriver, painting, or typing, can strain these tendons over time.

Risk Factors:

  • Sports and Activities: Participation in sports or activities that involve repetitive wrist extension and grip increases the risk of developing tennis elbow. These activities may include tennis, racquetball, weightlifting, and fencing.
  • Occupational Factors: Certain professions that require repetitive hand and wrist movements, like carpentry, plumbing, painting, and computer work, may predispose individuals to tennis elbow.
  • Age and Gender: Tennis elbow tends to affect individuals between the ages of 30 and 50. While it can occur in both men and women, it is more common in men.

Golfer’s Elbow (Medial Epicondylitis)


  • Repetitive Flexion: Golfer’s elbow is caused by repetitive stress on the forearm flexor tendons, especially the wrist flexor muscles. Activities that involve repetitive wrist flexion or gripping, such as golf swings, throwing, hammering, and using tools, can lead to this condition.

Risk Factors

  • Sports and Activities: As the name suggests, golfing is a significant risk factor for golfer’s elbow. Other activities like baseball, weightlifting, and activities that involve throwing or using tools can also contribute to this condition.
  • Occupational Factors: Occupations that require frequent gripping, flexing, and lifting actions, such as construction work, plumbing, and assembly line jobs, increase the risk of a golfer’s elbow.
  • Age and Gender: Golfer’s elbow is more common in men than women and typically affects individuals between the ages of 30 and 50.

Symptoms and Diagnosis

Recognizing the symptoms and seeking a timely diagnosis is crucial for effective management. Common signs of tennis elbow and golfer’s elbow include:

Tennis Elbow Symptoms

  • Pain or burning sensation on the outside of the elbow
  • Weak grip strength
  • Worsening pain with forearm activity

Golfer’s Elbow Symptoms

  • Pain and tenderness on the inner side of the elbow
  • Stiffness and weakness in the wrist and hand
  • Pain worsens during wrist and finger movements

Seeking Medical Advice

Seeking Medical Advice

Medical conditions can be complex and vary from person to person, so it’s essential to seek professional medical advice to receive an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Your healthcare provider will be able to evaluate your symptoms, and medical history, and conduct any necessary tests to determine the best course of action for your specific situation.

If you are experiencing symptoms related to tennis elbow, golfer’s elbow, or any other medical condition, I strongly encourage you to schedule an appointment with a healthcare professional as soon as possible to discuss your concerns and receive proper care. Your health and well-being are essential, and a qualified medical expert will be best equipped to address your needs.

Treatment Options

Thankfully, several effective treatment options are available to manage tennis elbow and golfer’s elbow:

Rest and Ice

Resting the affected arm and applying ice packs can help reduce inflammation and alleviate pain.

Physical Therapy

Engaging in targeted exercises under the guidance of a physical therapist can strengthen the muscles and promote healing.


Over-the-counter pain relievers and anti-inflammatory medications can provide temporary relief.

Brace or Support

Wearing an elbow brace or support can stabilize the injured area and prevent further strain.

Corticosteroid Injections

In severe cases, corticosteroid injections may be recommended to reduce inflammation.

Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) Therapy

PRP therapy involves using the body’s healing properties to accelerate tissue repair.

Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy (ESWT)

ESWT uses shockwaves to stimulate blood flow and promote healing in the affected area.

Surgery (In Severe Cases)

In rare cases that do not respond to conservative treatments, surgery may be considered.

Rehabilitation and Exercise

Rehabilitation and exercise play a crucial role in the management and recovery of conditions like tennis elbow and golfer’s elbow. However, it’s essential to remember that before starting any rehabilitation program or exercise regimen, it’s vital to consult with a healthcare professional to ensure it is safe and suitable for your specific condition and needs.

Here are some general rehabilitation and exercise guidelines for tennis elbow and golfer’s elbow:

Rest and Protection: In the initial stages of recovery, it’s essential to give the affected arm some rest to allow the injured tendons to heal. Avoid activities that aggravate the pain and consider using a brace or splint to protect the affected area during daily tasks.

Ice Therapy: Applying ice to the affected area for about 15-20 minutes several times a day can help reduce inflammation and pain.

Stretching Exercises: Gentle stretching exercises can improve flexibility and promote healing. Here are some simple stretches for both conditions:

  • Wrist Extension Stretch (Tennis Elbow):
  • Extend your affected arm straight in front of you, with your palm facing down.
  • Use your other hand to gently bend your wrist, pointing your fingers towards the floor.
  • Hold the stretch for 15-30 seconds and repeat several times.

Preventive Measures

Preventive measures are essential to reduce the risk of developing tennis elbow and golfer’s elbow, as well as to prevent the recurrence of these conditions. Here are some tips to help prevent these overuse injuries:

  • Warm-Up and Stretching: Always perform a proper warm-up before engaging in any physical activity, especially those involving repetitive forearm movements. Warming up helps increase blood flow to the muscles and prepares them for the demands of the activity. Additionally, include gentle stretching exercises for the forearm muscles before and after activities to improve flexibility.
  • Proper Technique and Body Mechanics: Ensure that you are using the correct technique when participating in sports or performing work-related tasks. The proper technique reduces unnecessary strain on the forearm muscles and tendons. If you are unsure about the right technique, consider seeking guidance from a coach, trainer, or experienced professional.
  • Gradual Progression: If you are starting a new sport or exercise routine that involves repetitive forearm movements, gradually increase the intensity and duration of your activity. Avoid sudden spikes in training volume or intensity, as this can put excessive stress on your tendons.

Tips for Tennis Elbow and Golfer’s Elbow for Players

For tennis players and golfers who have experienced or are concerned about tennis elbow and golfer’s elbow, there are specific tips and practices that can help manage and prevent these conditions. Here are some recommendations:

  • Adequate Rest and Recovery: Allow sufficient time for your elbows to rest and recover after playing tennis or golf. Overuse can lead to inflammation and pain. Schedule regular rest days between intense training or playing sessions to give your tendons time to heal.
  • Ice and Compression: After playing or when you experience pain, apply ice to the affected area for about 15-20 minutes. This can help reduce inflammation and alleviate discomfort. You may also consider using a compression sleeve to support the elbow during activities.
  • Proper Technique: Focus on using the correct technique and form during your swings or strokes. Seek guidance from a coach or instructor to ensure you are executing the movements correctly. Proper technique can reduce the strain on your tendons and lower the risk of injury.
  • Warm-Up and Stretching: Always perform a thorough warm-up before playing. Incorporate dynamic stretches for your forearms, wrists, shoulders, and back to prepare your muscles for the movements involved in tennis or golf.

Alternative Therapies

Alternative therapies may complement traditional medical treatments for tennis elbow and golfer’s elbow. However, it’s essential to remember that these alternative therapies should not replace conventional medical care.

Always consult with a qualified healthcare professional before trying any alternative therapies to ensure they are safe and suitable for your specific condition. Here are some alternative therapies that some individuals find beneficial for managing these conditions:

  • Physical Therapy: Physical therapy is a well-established form of treatment for tennis elbow and golfer’s elbow. A skilled physical therapist can design a personalized exercise program to strengthen and stretch the affected muscles, improve joint mobility, and promote healing.
  • Acupuncture: Acupuncture is a traditional Chinese medicine practice that involves the insertion of thin needles into specific points of the body. Some individuals find relief from pain and inflammation related to tennis elbow and golfer’s elbow through acupuncture sessions.
  • Massage Therapy: Massage therapy can help reduce muscle tension, increase blood flow, and promote relaxation. Targeted massage techniques on the forearm and surrounding muscles may aid in easing discomfort and supporting recovery.


In conclusion, tennis elbow and golfer’s elbow can be challenging, but with the right knowledge, early intervention, and appropriate care, recovery is achievable. Remember to prioritize prevention and proper technique to enjoy your favorite sports without unnecessary pain.

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