Understanding Knee Arthritis: Causes, Symptoms, and Management

Understanding Knee Arthritis: Causes, Symptoms, and Management

Arthritis is a term many have heard but few truly understand. When it strikes the knee, one of the most pivotal joints in our body, it can transform daily tasks into challenges. Knee arthritis isn’t just a single ailment, rather it’s a culmination of various conditions that affect the knee joint. In this blog, we’ll dive deep into the world of knee arthritis, exploring its causes, identifying its symptoms, and offering guidance on how to manage its effects.

What is Knee Arthritis?

What is Knee Arthritis?Knee Arthritis is a degenerative condition that affects the knee joint. And, leading to pain, swelling, and reduced mobility. It arises when the protective cartilage that cushions the ends of your bones wears down over time. Without this cushioning, bones in the knee can grind against each other, causing discomfort and limiting function.

There are various types of knee arthritis, with osteoarthritis being the most common. Other types include rheumatoid arthritis, which is an autoimmune condition, and post-traumatic arthritis, which can develop after a knee injury. Regardless of the type, all forms of knee arthritis can significantly impact an individual’s quality of life. Ultimately, making everyday activities like walking or climbing stairs more challenging.

What Are Signs Of Arthritis In The Knee?

Signs and symptoms of arthritis in the knee can vary depending on the type and severity of the condition. Common signs include:

  • Pain

Pain may be felt during or after movement and can be sharp, aching, or throbbing in nature. It might be more pronounced after prolonged periods of inactivity, such as upon waking up in the morning or after sitting for long durations.

  • Stiffness

The knee may feel stiff, especially in the morning or after sitting for extended periods. This stiffness can make it challenging to fully bend or straighten the knee.

  • Swelling

Inflammation can cause the knee joint to swell, making it appear puffy or larger than the opposite, unaffected knee.

  • Reduced Range of Motion

Over time, arthritis can limit the knee’s ability to fully flex or extend. This can hinder activities like squatting, kneeling, or walking.

  • Crepitus

This refers to a crackling or grinding sound or sensation when the knee is moved. It’s the result of bone rubbing against bone or roughened cartilage.

  • Warmth

The affected knee might feel warm to the touch, which is a sign of inflammation.

  • Deformity

As arthritis progresses, it can lead to changes in the joint’s structure, causing noticeable deformities, such as bowlegs or knock knees.

  • Muscle Weakness

The muscles around the knee may weaken, leading to reduced support and stability for the joint.

It’s essential to note that symptoms can vary from person to person. Some individuals may have significant joint damage visible on X-rays but experience only mild symptoms, while others might have severe symptoms with less noticeable joint damage.

Is Walking Good For Arthritis In The Knees?

Is Walking Good For Arthritis In The Knees?Absolutely! Walking is a low-impact exercise that can be highly beneficial for individuals with arthritis in the knees. Regular walking helps to strengthen the muscles around the knee. This can provide more support and reduce stress on the affected joint. Stronger muscles act as a cushion, absorbing the forces exerted on the joint during daily activities. Thus minimizing the wear and tear on the knee cartilage.

However, it’s important to approach walking with care and listen to your body’s signals. If you’re new to walking as an exercise, it’s essential to start slow and gradually increase your distance and pace. Opting for supportive footwear, walking on even surfaces, and avoiding excessive strain on the knees can further minimize discomfort. If pain or swelling intensifies after walking, it’s a cue to rest and consult a healthcare professional about the best strategies.

What Are The Possible Causes And Risk Factors?

Knee arthritis can arise from a combination of several causes and risk factors. While some factors are inevitable, others can be modified or managed to reduce the risk of developing or exacerbating knee arthritis.

Possible Causes

  • Wear and Tear: Osteoarthritis, the most common type of knee arthritis, results from the wear and tear of the knee joint over time. This wear and tear can lead to the degeneration of cartilage, causing bones to rub against each other.
  • Injury: A significant injury to the knee, such as a torn ligament, meniscal tear, or fracture, can lead to post-traumatic arthritis. Even injuries that occurred many years ago can increase the risk of developing arthritis in the knee.
  • Autoimmune Reaction: Rheumatoid arthritis, another type of arthritis affecting the knee, is caused by an autoimmune reaction where the body’s immune system attacks its tissues, including the knee joint lining.

Risk Factors

  • Age: The risk of developing knee arthritis increases with age. Older individuals are more prone to wear and tear in their joints.
  • Gender: Women are more likely than men to develop osteoarthritis, though the reasons for this are not entirely clear.
  • Obesity: Carrying extra weight increases stress on weight-bearing joints, including the knees. Additionally, fat tissue produces proteins that may cause harmful inflammation in and around the knee joints.
  • Genetics: Some people inherit a predisposition to developing knee arthritis due to their genetic makeup.
  • Occupational Hazards: Jobs that require repetitive stress on the knee, such as kneeling, squatting, or heavy lifting, can increase the risk of arthritis.
  • Sports and Activities: Athletes or individuals involved in high-impact sports or activities may have a higher risk of developing knee arthritis due to repeated stress and potential injuries to the knee.
  • Joint Abnormalities: People born with joint abnormalities or misalignments may be at an increased risk of developing arthritis.

Understanding the causes and risk factors for knee arthritis can help in taking preventive measures, seeking early intervention, and managing the condition effectively.

How Do You Treat Knee Arthritis?

How Do You Treat Knee Arthritis?Treating knee arthritis involves a multifaceted approach. Treatment plans are typically individualized based on the type and severity of arthritis. Here’s an overview of common treatment strategies:


  • Pain Relievers: Over-the-counter (OTC) pain medications, like acetaminophen (Tylenol), can help alleviate mild to moderate pain.
  • Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs): Drugs like ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) or naproxen sodium (Aleve) can reduce both pain and inflammation.
  • Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs): For rheumatoid arthritis, medications like methotrexate or hydroxychloroquine might be used.
  • Biologic Response Modifiers: These are newer medications often used in conjunction with DMARDs for rheumatoid arthritis. Examples include etanercept (Enbrel) and infliximab (Remicade).
  • Corticosteroids: These can be taken orally or injected directly into the knee joint to reduce inflammation and pain.
  • Physical and Occupational Therapy: Therapists can provide exercises to strengthen the joint and improve its range of motion. They can also offer strategies for performing daily tasks with less stress on the joint.

Assistive Devices

  • Braces: A knee brace or sleeve can provide support and potentially alleviate pain.
  • Shoes and Insoles: Supportive footwear and specialized insoles can reduce knee pain during walking.

Joint Injections

  • Hyaluronic Acid: This viscous substance can be injected into the knee to lubricate the joint and act as a shock absorber.
  • Platelet-rich Plasma (PRP): This involves drawing a patient’s blood, processing it, and then injecting concentrated platelets back into the affected knee. It’s believed to promote natural healing.

Surgical Procedures

  • Arthroscopy: A minimally invasive procedure to remove loose fragments of bone or cartilage or clean the joint.
  • Osteotomy: The bone is cut to realign the knee, redistributing weight away from the damaged part of the knee.
  • Total or Partial Knee Replacement (Arthroplasty): The damaged parts of the knee joint are replaced with plastic or metal parts.

Alternative Therapies

Acupuncture, massage, and certain supplements, such as glucosamine and chondroitin, might offer relief for some individuals, though scientific evidence varies.

Heat and Cold Therapy

Applying heat or cold can relieve pain and inflammation. Heat pads can ease muscle tension, while cold packs can reduce swelling.

It’s crucial for individuals with knee arthritis to work closely with their healthcare professionals, such as rheumatologists, orthopedic surgeons, and physical therapists. They will help to determine the best treatment plan tailored to their specific needs.

What Exercises Can Help In Knee Arthritis?

Exercise can be instrumental in managing knee arthritis. They can help strengthen the muscles around the knee, provide better joint support, improve flexibility, and reduce pain. Here’s a list of exercises beneficial for those with knee arthritis:

Range-of-motion exercises

These are gentle stretching exercises that can help maintain or increase the flexibility of the joints. They prevent stiffness and help the knee move through its full range of motion. Examples include:

  • Leg swings
  • Heel-to-toe raises

Strengthening exercises

These exercises help build strength in the muscles supporting the knee, which can lead to reduced pain.

  • Quadriceps strengthening: Using resistance bands or weights, these exercises target the muscles in front of the thigh.
  • Hamstring curls: Strengthening the back of the thigh.
  • Straight-leg raises: Lying down or sitting, these exercises can strengthen both hip and thigh muscles without putting pressure on the knee.

Low-impact aerobic exercises

These exercises can improve cardiovascular health without adding extra strain on the knees.

  • Walking: Even short, consistent walks can make a difference.
  • Cycling: Stationary bikes can provide a good workout with minimal impact on the knees.
  • Swimming and water aerobics: The buoyancy of water reduces stress on joints. Eventually, making these excellent choices for those with knee arthritis.

Balance and agility exercises

These can help improve knee stability and overall functional movement.

  • Heel-to-toe walk: Walking in a straight line, placing one foot directly in front of the other, challenges balance.
  • Single leg stands: Standing on one leg helps strengthen stabilizing muscles.
  • Flexibility exercises: Stretching the muscles around the knee can help maintain joint function.

Calf stretch

Calf stretchUsing a wall for support, press the heel down while leaning forward to stretch the back of the lower leg.

  • Hamstring stretch: While seated, lean forward from the hips (keeping the back straight) to stretch the back of the thigh.
  • Tai Chi and Yoga: These gentle forms of exercise can improve flexibility, balance, and muscle strength. They also emphasize relaxation and can be modified to accommodate painful joints.

A few things to remember:

  1. Always consult with a physical therapist or physician before starting any exercise regimen to ensure it’s appropriate for your specific condition.
  2. Start slowly, and gradually increase the intensity and duration of exercises to prevent overuse or injury.
  3. If you experience sharp pain or increased swelling, stop the exercise and consult a healthcare professional.
  4. Combining exercises with other treatments, such as medication or heat/cold therapy, can enhance their effectiveness.

Regular exercise can play a crucial role in managing knee arthritis symptoms and improving overall knee health.


In the journey of understanding and managing knee arthritis, it’s evident that while the condition poses challenges, there are numerous avenues for alleviation. From recognizing symptoms and understanding causes to embracing a blend of medical treatments and physical exercises, individuals have a toolkit at their disposal to mitigate pain and improve joint functionality.

By proactively addressing knee arthritis with informed choices, maintaining an active lifestyle, and seeking professional guidance, one can successfully navigate the intricacies of the condition. Eventually, lead a fulfilling, active life. If you’re experiencing Knee pain, physical therapy for knee pain at PhysioMantra can help: Book an online physical therapy session.