Breaking Down Back Pain: Insights Into Its Root Causes

back pain causes

If you’ve ever felt the sharp sting or persistent throb of back pain, you know how it can halt your day, disrupt your comfort, and impact your overall well-being. Back pain, be it a sporadic twinge or a chronic ache, is something many of us have experienced or will experience at some point in our lives. Therefore, in this guide, we delve into the myriad causes of back pain, providing a detailed exploration of issues that affect each region – the lower, middle, and upper back. So, let’s quickly get started!

Basic Anatomy of the Back

To truly comprehend the root causes of back pain, it’s beneficial to have a basic understanding of the back’s anatomy. The human back is a complex structure, a marvel of biological engineering if you will, composed of bones, muscles, and nerves all working harmoniously to support our body and facilitate movement.

Understanding this basic structure helps us comprehend why back pain can be so complex. Given the many parts at play, there are multiple potential sources of discomfort. In the following sections, we will explore how problems with these different components can lead to pain in various parts of the back.

Different Types of Back Pain

Back pain is not a one-size-fits-all experience; it varies greatly from person to person, and even from day to day for the same individual. One crucial step in managing back pain is understanding the type you’re dealing with. Generally, back pain is categorized by its duration and location: acute or chronic, and lower, middle, or upper.

  • Lower Back Pain
    Lower back pain is the most common type of back pain. It usually originates from muscle strain, ligament sprain, a herniated disc, or conditions like arthritis or osteoporosis. The pain might be limited to the lower back, or it could radiate into the hips, buttocks, or legs.
  • Middle Back Pain
    Middle back pain occurs in the thoracic spine, the region between the base of the neck and the bottom of your rib cage. It’s less common than lower back pain, typically resulting from muscle strain, poor posture, herniated discs, or osteoarthritis.
  • Upper Back Pain
    Pain in the upper back, or the cervical spine and neck region, can be due to various causes like muscular irritation, joint dysfunction, herniated discs, or conditions like osteoarthritis. It can also be a result of poor ergonomic habits or stress.

Common Causes of Back Pain

Now that we’ve discussed the types of back pain, let’s delve into some of the most common causes. It’s important to note that the root of back pain can be complex and multifaceted, often involving more than one factor.

Lower Back Pain

Common Causes of Back PainLower back pain is incredibly common, and its causes are numerous:

  • Muscle or Ligament Strain: This is the most common cause of lower back pain. It usually happens due to heavy physical activity, awkward movements, or maintaining an improper posture for a long time. The pain can range from a mild ache to a severe, crippling discomfort.
  • Bulging or Ruptured Disks: Disks act as cushions between the bones of your spine. When these disks bulge or rupture, they can press on a nerve, causing significant pain that often radiates to the buttocks and legs.
  • Arthritis: Osteoarthritis can affect the lower back, causing stiffness and pain. In severe cases, it can lead to a more serious condition called spinal stenosis, where the space around the spinal cord narrows, causing nerve pain.
  • Skeletal Irregularities: Conditions like scoliosis, a curvature of the spine, can lead to back pain later in life.

Middle Back Pain

Middle back pain is less common but can still be bothersome:

  • Poor Posture: Spending long hours hunched over your computer or slouching can strain the muscles and ligaments in your mid-back, causing discomfort.
  • Herniated Disc: Though less common in the thoracic region, a herniated disc can cause middle back pain. The pain can be sharp and radiate to the front of the body.
  • Osteoarthritis: Degenerative changes due to aging or wear and tear can affect the joints in the thoracic spine, leading to mid-back pain.

Upper Back Pain

Common Causes of Back PainUpper back pain is less common than lower back pain, but can occur due to various causes:

  • Muscle Strain: Overuse, repetitive motion, or injury can lead to muscle strains in your neck and upper back, causing pain and stiffness.
  • Neck-Related Problems: Conditions like cervical degenerative disc disease and cervical osteoarthritis can cause pain in your neck that can radiate to your upper back.
  • Poor Ergonomics and Posture: Working on a computer without taking breaks, cradling a phone between your shoulder and ear, or any other activities that lead to forward-head posture can cause upper back pain.

Understanding the common causes of back pain in different areas of the back can help you identify potential factors contributing to your pain. However, it’s important to seek medical advice for a proper diagnosis and treatment plan. Remember, it’s important to consult a healthcare professional if you’re experiencing back pain. They can provide a proper diagnosis and recommend the best treatment options for your specific situation.

Risk Factors to Keep in Mind

Risk Factors to Keep in Mind

While back pain can affect anyone, certain factors can increase your likelihood of developing it. Recognizing these risk factors can help you take proactive steps towards prevention. Here are some factors that may make you more prone to experiencing back pain:

  • Age: Back pain becomes more common as we age. The onset of back pain typically starts around the age of 30 or 40.
  • Lack of Exercise: Unused, weak, or atrophied muscles in your back and abdomen might lead to back pain.
  • Excess Weight: Being overweight or obese can put extra stress on your back, particularly the lower back, leading to pain over time.
  • Diseases: Certain types of arthritis and cancer can contribute to back pain. Conditions like kidney stones, endometriosis, or fibromyalgia may also cause back pain.
  • Improper Lifting: Using your back instead of your legs to lift heavy objects can lead to back pain, or even more serious injuries like a herniated disc.
  • Smoking: Nicotine can restrict blood flow to the discs in the spine, leading to faster degeneration. Also, coughing from heavy smoking can cause back pain.
  • Psychological Conditions: People prone to depression and anxiety appear to have a greater risk of back pain.
  • Sedentary Lifestyle: Sitting for long periods, especially with poor posture, puts undue stress on your back and can lead to pain over time.
  • Genetic Factors: Certain genetic traits may predispose some people to conditions like ankylosing spondylitis, a form of arthritis that involves fusion of the spine’s vertebrae.

Understanding these risk factors can help you make lifestyle changes to reduce your risk of back pain or prevent its exacerbation. But remember, always consult with a healthcare professional for personalized advice and treatment.

How To Prevent Back Pain?

How To Prevent Back PainPreventing back pain is largely about maintaining a healthy lifestyle, being mindful of your body, and mitigating risk factors. Here are some strategies to help prevent the onset or recurrence of back pain:

  • Maintain Good Posture: Poor posture puts strain on your back and can cause discomfort over time. Whether you’re sitting, standing, or lifting objects, be aware of your posture. Keep your back straight, balance your weight evenly on both feet, and avoid slouching.
  • Stay Active: Regular physical activity can help keep your back muscles strong and flexible. Incorporate exercises that strengthen your back and core into your routine, such as yoga or Pilates. Swimming and walking can also be beneficial.
  • Maintain a Healthy Weight: Carrying extra weight, especially around your midsection, can put undue stress on your back muscles. Maintaining a healthy weight can help prevent back pain.
  • Quit Smoking: Smoking increases the risk of back pain. Quitting smoking can reduce this risk and also provide numerous other health benefits.
  • Choose the Right Footwear: Shoes that support the arch and keep the foot aligned with the ankle and shin can help maintain a healthy posture and reduce stress on the lower back.
  • Be Mindful When Lifting: Always use your legs and knees to lift heavy objects rather than your back. Hold the object close to your body and don’t twist your body while lifting.
  • Create an Ergonomic Workspace: If you work at a desk, make sure your chair and table are at the correct height, and your computer monitor is at eye level. Use a chair with good lower back support, and take regular breaks to stand and stretch.

If you already have existing back pain, these strategies can also help manage your symptoms.

When To Seek Professional Help?

While occasional back pain can often be managed with self-care practices, there are situations where it’s crucial to seek professional help. It’s not always easy to know when your back pain is a routine part of life and when it’s a sign of something more serious. Here are some indications that it’s time to consult a healthcare professional:

  • Persistent Pain: If your back pain doesn’t improve or gets worse even after rest and home treatment, it’s a good idea to seek medical advice.
  • Severe Pain: If your pain is intense or unbearable, don’t try to manage it on your own. It’s important to get professional help.
  • Pain Along with Other Symptoms: If your back pain is accompanied by fever, unexplained weight loss, or other symptoms like numbness, weakness, or tingling in one or both legs, seek medical help. Similarly, if you have bladder or bowel control problems, you should seek immediate medical attention.
  • Pain That Spreads Down the Leg: If your back pain extends to your leg, particularly if it extends below your knee, it’s important to seek help.
  • Pain Affecting Daily Activities: If your back pain is severe enough to prevent you from doing everyday tasks, it’s a sign that you need to seek medical advice.

Remember, it’s always better to be safe than sorry when it comes to your health. Even if you’re unsure, it’s better to seek professional help if you’re experiencing persistent or severe back pain.

Treatment Options That Can Help

There are various treatment options available to help manage back pain, depending on its cause and severity. While medications and surgeries might be necessary in some cases, conservative approaches such as physical therapy are often the first line of treatment. Here’s why:

Physical Therapy

Physical therapy can play a vital role in managing back pain. It not only helps relieve pain but also improves physical function. The aim of physical therapy is to reduce pain, increase function, and provide education on a maintenance program to prevent further recurrences. Here’s how it works:

  • Pain Relief Techniques: Physical therapists use a variety of techniques to alleviate pain. These can include heat and cold therapies, ultrasound, electrical stimulation, or manual therapies like massage and manipulation.
  • Exercise Program: A physical therapist will design a specific set of exercises that target your pain, improve your range of motion, and strengthen your back and core muscles. This personalized program can address your specific needs and help you manage your pain in the long term.
  • Posture Education: Physical therapists can teach you how to make small changes to your posture and work environment to help protect your back.
  • Body Mechanics Training: This involves teaching patients how to move and function more efficiently in their daily lives. This can include guidance on lifting and moving heavy objects, improving balance, and how to avoid straining your back.
  • Self-Management Skills: A crucial part of physical therapy is educating patients on how to manage their symptoms at home. This includes exercises you can do on your own, as well as tips on managing flare-ups of pain.

Physical therapy is an active process that requires participation from the patient. But the rewards – improved mobility, less pain, and a better quality of life – are well worth the effort.


Back pain can be a significant hindrance to living life to the fullest. But remember, it’s not something you have to bear alone or without options. Understanding the causes of your back pain, recognizing risk factors, taking preventative measures, and knowing when to seek professional help are all vital steps towards finding relief and regaining your quality of life.

At PhysioMantra, we understand the complexities of back pain and how it affects your life. So, if you’re struggling with back pain, we encourage you to take that first step toward relief. Book a trial therapy session with us today.

If you’re experiencing Back pain, physical therapy for back pain at PhysioMantra can help: Book an online physical therapy session.