Lumbago: What Causes Lumbago and How To Cure It?


Lumbago, also known as lower back pain, is a prevalent condition that affects millions of individuals worldwide. This discomfort in the lumbar region can be debilitating, impacting one’s daily activities and overall well-being. Understanding lumbago, its causes, symptoms, and treatment options is crucial for effectively managing and preventing this condition.

Understanding Lumbago

Lumbago, also known as lower back pain, is a common condition characterized by discomfort or pain in the lumbar region of the spine. The lumbar region is the lower part of the back, just above the pelvis, and it consists of five vertebrae (L1 to L5) that support the upper body and provide flexibility for movement.

Lumbago can range from mild to severe and can be acute (short-term) or chronic (long-lasting). It affects people of all ages and can be caused by various factors, including muscle strain, spinal injuries, degenerative changes in the spine, or underlying medical conditions.


The main symptom of lumbago, also known as lower back pain, is discomfort or pain in the lumbar region of the spine. However, the specific symptoms can vary depending on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. Some common symptoms of lumbago include:

  • Lower back pain: The primary and most noticeable symptom is pain in the lower back. The pain can range from a mild ache to a sharp, stabbing sensation. It may be localized to a specific area or spread across the lower back.
  • Pain that radiates: Lumbago can sometimes cause pain that radiates to other areas of the body. For example, pain may extend down the buttocks, thighs, or legs. This is known as radicular pain and can be caused by pressure or irritation of the nerves in the lumbar region.
  • Stiffness: Individuals with lumbago may experience stiffness in the lower back, making it difficult to move or bend comfortably.
  • Limited range of motion: The pain and stiffness in the lower back may lead to a reduced ability to perform certain movements, such as bending forward or twisting.
  • Muscle spasms: Muscle spasms, which are involuntary contractions of the back muscles, can occur in response to the pain or as a protective mechanism.

Causes of Lumbago

Lumbago, or lower back pain, can be caused by various factors, ranging from minor muscle strains to more severe structural issues. Identifying the underlying cause is crucial in determining the most appropriate treatment. Some common causes of lumbago include:

  • Muscle Strain: Overstretching or tearing of the muscles or ligaments in the lower back due to sudden movements, improper lifting, or overexertion can lead to lumbago.
  • Herniated Disc: The intervertebral discs act as cushions between the vertebrae. When one of these discs becomes damaged or ruptures, it can press on nearby nerves, resulting in lower back pain.
  • Degenerative Disc Disease: Over time, the intervertebral discs can degenerate, losing their flexibility and cushioning ability. This degeneration can cause chronic lower back pain, particularly in older individuals.
  • Spinal Stenosis: This condition involves the narrowing of the spinal canal, which can put pressure on the spinal cord and nerves, leading to lumbago and other symptoms like leg pain or weakness.
  • Spondylolisthesis: This occurs when one vertebra slips forward over another, often causing lower back pain and affecting the stability of the spine.
  • Sciatica: Compression or irritation of the sciatic nerve, which runs from the lower back down the legs, can result in lumbago and radiating pain, tingling, or numbness in the buttocks and legs.
  • Arthritis: Osteoarthritis and other types of arthritis can affect the spine’s facet joints and lead to inflammation, pain, and stiffness in the lower back.

Treatment Options

The treatment options for lumbago, or lower back pain, depend on the underlying cause, the severity of the pain, and individual factors such as age and overall health. In most cases, lower back pain can be managed effectively with conservative treatments. Here are some common treatment options:

  • Pain Medications: Over-the-counter pain relievers like acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen can help reduce pain and inflammation. Prescription medications may be recommended for more severe pain.
  • Heat and Cold Therapy: Applying heat packs or taking warm baths can help relax the muscles and ease the pain. Cold packs or ice wrapped in a towel can reduce inflammation and numb the area.
  • Physical Therapy: A physical therapist can design an individualized exercise program to strengthen the core and back muscles, improve flexibility, and correct posture. Physical therapy is beneficial for both acute and chronic lumbago.
  • Weight Management: Maintaining a healthy weight reduces stress on the lower back and can prevent or alleviate lumbago.
  • Correcting Posture: Learning and maintaining good posture during daily activities can help reduce strain on the lower back.
  • Epidural Steroid Injections: In cases of severe pain or inflammation, corticosteroid injections can be administered directly into the epidural space around the spinal nerves to provide relief.

Prevention and Lifestyle Changes

Even if you’ve already experienced lower back pain, these measures can help prevent its recurrence. Here are some prevention tips and lifestyle changes to consider:

  • Exercise Regularly: Engage in low-impact aerobic exercises like walking, swimming, or cycling, along with strength-training exercises that focus on core muscles (abdominal and back muscles). Strong core muscles provide support to the spine and reduce the risk of injury.
  • Maintain a Healthy Weight: Excess body weight can strain the lower back. Adopting a balanced diet and staying physically active can help you maintain a healthy weight and reduce stress on the spine.
  • Lift Properly: When lifting heavy objects, bend your knees and keep your back straight. Lift with your legs, not your back, and avoid twisting while lifting.
  • Avoid Prolonged Sitting: If you have a sedentary job, take breaks to stand, stretch, and walk around regularly. Consider using a standing desk or an ergonomic chair that provides lumbar support.
  • Use Proper Mattress and Pillow: Choose a supportive mattress and a pillow that keeps your neck in line with your spine. A mattress that is too soft or too firm can contribute to back pain.

Living with Lumbago

Living with lumbago, or lower back pain, can be challenging, but there are various strategies and lifestyle adjustments that can help manage the condition and improve your quality of life. Here are some tips for living with lumbago:

  • Seek Professional Help: If you experience persistent or severe lower back pain, it’s essential to consult a healthcare professional. A proper diagnosis is crucial in developing an effective treatment plan tailored to your specific condition.
  • Follow Treatment Recommendations: Adhere to the treatment plan prescribed by your healthcare provider. This may include medications, physical therapy, or other interventions to alleviate pain and promote healing.
  • Use Proper Lifting Techniques: When lifting objects, bend your knees and keep your back straight. Lift with your legs, not your back, and avoid twisting.
  • Weight Management: Maintain a healthy weight to reduce stress on the lower back. A balanced diet and regular exercise can help achieve and maintain a healthy weight.
  • Modify Daily Activities: Make modifications to daily activities that exacerbate your lower back pain. For example, use assistive devices or alternate between sitting and standing if prolonged sitting worsens your pain.
  • Manage Stress: Chronic stress can exacerbate lumbago. Practice stress-reducing techniques like deep breathing, meditation, or mindfulness.

Lumbago in Specific Demographics

Lumbago, or lower back pain, can affect people of all ages and demographics. However, certain factors and demographics may make some individuals more susceptible to developing lumbago or experiencing certain types of lower back pain. Let’s explore how lumbago can be influenced by specific demographics:

  • Age: As people age, the risk of experiencing lumbago increases. Age-related changes in the spine, such as degenerative disc disease or osteoarthritis, become more prevalent and can lead to lower back pain.
  • Gender: Studies have shown that women are more likely than men to experience lower back pain, particularly during pregnancy and in the postpartum period due to hormonal changes, weight gain, and alterations in posture.
  • Occupation: Certain occupations, such as jobs that involve heavy lifting, repetitive movements, or prolonged sitting, can put individuals at a higher risk of developing lumbago. Manual laborers, healthcare workers, and office workers are examples of occupations that may be more prone to back pain.
  • Physical Fitness: People who lead sedentary lifestyles or have weak core and back muscles may be more susceptible to lumbago. Regular physical activity and exercises that strengthen the core muscles can help reduce the risk of lower back pain.
  • Obesity: Excess body weight puts added strain on the lower back and increases the risk of developing lumbago.
  • Pregnancy: Pregnant women often experience lower back pain due to changes in posture, weight distribution, and hormonal influences. The growing uterus can also shift the center of gravity, affecting the spine’s alignment.


Lumbago, or lower back pain, is a widespread condition that can significantly impact an individual’s life. By understanding the causes, symptoms, and treatment options, individuals can take proactive steps to manage, prevent, and improve their well-being. Embracing a holistic approach that addresses both physical and emotional aspects is essential for living a fulfilling life despite lumbago’s challenges.

If you’re experiencing Back pain, physical therapy for back pain at PhysioMantra can help: Book an online physical therapy session.